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AP Biology cell structure and function test PDF

1. As cell size increases, surface area to volume ratio decreases. 2.As cell size increases, the distance from the cell surface to its center increases. 3.The size of the cell (small versus large) and shape (short/fat versus long/skinny) will influence the efficiency of diffusion. 4.Small cells and long/skinny cells will be most efficient at. The Cell Theory 1. All life is made of cells 2. The cell is the basic unit of life. 3. All cells arise from pre-existing cells. 4. Cells contain DNA and pass this DNA to offspring 5. Cells are based on the same four classes of macromolecules 6. Cells use energy *Why is the Cell Theory called a Theory AP Biology Cell Structure and Function - Topics 2.7 through 2.9 Topic 2.7 Facilitated Diffusion Enduring Understanding ENE-2 Cells have membranes that allow them to establish and maintain internal environments that are different from their external environments. Learning Objective Essential Knowledge ENE-2.G Explain how the structure of AP Bio Cells, Cell Division Practice Test 2016 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. ____ 1. One of the factors that limits cell size appears to be the: a. efficiency of its mitochondria d. proportion of ribosomes attached to the endoplasmic reticulum b. capacity of the nucleus to control it AP Bio Unit 2: Cell Structure and Function Cheat Sheet by julescrisfulla - Cheatography.com Created Date: 20200517220105Z.

AP Biology Basic Cell Structure Cells Cells are considered to be the basic units of life. The cell is an example of Emergent Properties. The organelles alone can do nothing, but if all of them are put together inside a cell membrane, life can emerge. Cytology is the study of cells; Cytologist - a person who works with cells. Cell Type Page 8 AP Biology: 2013 Exam Review 4. Nervous System a. function: sensory input, motor function, regulation b. structure: neuron, axon, dendrites, synapse c. Polarized neuron: Na+ outside, K+ and Cl-inside d. Depolarization moves Na into neuron, generating an action potential e. Repolarization exchanges Na+ and K+ through the sodium-potassium. Biology Practice Exam From the 2013 Administration This is a modified version of the 2013 AP Biology Exam. • This practice exam is provided by the College Board for AP Exam preparation. • Exams may not be posted on school or personal websites, nor electronically redistributed for any reason

A Comprehensive Guide to AP Biology by Brian Lin Table of Contents: About the new AP Bio test (pages 2 3) I. Evolution (pages 4 8) II. Biochemistry (pages 8 16) III. Cells, Membranes, Transport (pages 16 22) IV. DNA Replication and Cell Cycle (pages 23 28) V. Ecology and Behavior (pages 29 37) VI. Plants and Photosynthesis (38 47 About the Authors Peter Mikulecky: Peter Mikulecky grew up in Milwaukee, an area of Wisconsin unique for its high human-to-cow ratio. After a breezy four-year tour in the Army, Peter earned a BS in bio-chemistry and molecular biology from the University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire and a PhD i (b) Predict the effects of the mutation on the structure and function of the resulting protein in species IV. Justify your prediction. 6. The following data were collected by observing subcellular structures of three different types of eukaryotic cells. RELATIVE AMOUNTS OF ORGANELLES IN THREE CELL TYPE

The AP Biology exam is a 3-hour, end-of-course test comprised of 60 multiple-choice questions, 8-11% of test questions • Cell Structure and Function: 10-13% of test questions • Cellular Energetics: 12-16% of test questions • Cell Communication and Cell Cycle: 10-15% of test questions • Heredity: 8-11% of test questions. AP BIOLOGY MIDTERM. Practice multiple choice questions are on canvas, IT IS A GRADE. The content that will be on the midterm is listed in the document below. midterm_chapters_and_sections.docx. File Size: 18 kb. File Type AP Biology Unit 2: The Cell and Cell Membrane Cheat Sheet by hlewsey Ch 6: The Cell; Ch 7: Membrane Structure & Function; Ch 11: Cell Communication; Ch 12: The Cell Cycle Organelle

The correct answer is (A). The eukaryotic cell's genetic functions are housed in the nucleus and carried out by the ribosomes. The mitochondria and chloroplasts change energy from one form to another. The nuclear envelope, nucleolus and chromatin are all part of the nucleus. Question 7 Honors Biology Test # 2 Cell Structure and Function Multiple Choice. Write the capital letter of the correct answer on the space provided. (3-pts. Each) ___1. The first person to see a cell was a. Anton van Leewenhoek. b. Robert Hooke. c. Matthew Schleiden d. Rudolph Virchow ___2

Pre-AP Biology Unit II: Cell Structure and Function Qui

answer choices. Pulling away of the plant cell membrane as it loses water in a hypertonic solution. Pulling away of the animal cell membrane as it undergoes osmosis. An increase in turgor pressure as the cell undergoes osmosis. Contraction of the protoplast of a plant cell as a result of gaining water AP®︎/College Biology. Unit: Cell structure and function. 0. Legend (Opens a modal) Possible mastery points. Unit test. Level up on all the skills in this unit and collect up to 800 Mastery points! Start Unit test. Biology is brought to you with support from the Amgen Foundation All cells contain DNA, while eukaryotic cells organize their DNA in tightly wrapped structures called chromosomes. The boundary of a cell between itself and the outside environment is the plasma membrane, a selectively permeable barrier that is made of a phospholipid bilayer. Transport across the plasma membrane is a huge part of this unit Catalase/peroxidase function or detoxification. (b) Prokaryotic cells lack membrane-bound organelles found in eukaryotes. However, prokaryotes must perform many of the same functions as eukaryotes. For THREE of the organelles identified in part (a), explain how prokaryotic cells carry out the associated functions. (3 points maximum

Cell Structure and Function (Unit 2) Chapter 5 - Membrane Transport and Cell Signaling. Chapter 32.4-32.5 Osmoregulation & Waste. Chapter 34.5-34.7 Gas Exchange AP Biology - Diffusion and Osmosis Lab.pdf View Biocoach Cell Structure and Function (upload a copy of Concept 2 practice scores, Concept 3 practice scores and self-quiz scores to Canvas) SMV Endomembrane System (upload 2-5 quiz scores) 2.1 Monday 9.1

AP Biology Unit 2: Cell Structure & Function Topics - Cell Structure: Subcellular Components, Cell Structure and Function, Cell Size, Plasma Membranes, Membrane Transport, Facilitated Diffusion, Tonicity and Osmoregulation, Mechanisms of Transport, Cell compartmentalization, Origins of Cell Compartmentalization Directions - For each question, choose the best answer (unless otherwise stated. Cells are the basic structural and functional units of all known living organisms. There are two major types: prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells have no real nucleus, have circular DNA, and reproduce using binary fission. Prokaryotes include archaea and bacteria. These cells are small and move via flagella Begin your AP® Biology journey with an introduction to the basic building blocks and necessary components of life: water, necessary elements, and biological macromolecules. Dig into the structure and function of DNA, a theme that will recur through this course Get Ahead with AP - AP Students | College Boar Cell bio is super important in both AP Bio and USABO, so here's a quick crash course on the concepts relevant to the two exams. Hope it helps!Concepts covere..

AP Biology Online Quizzes & Tests By providing links to other sites, www.brainbeau.com does not guarantee, approve, or endorse the information or products available on these sites. Please note that these external links are set to match the chapter format in Campbell & Reece Biology - AP Edition 8th Edition 3. Cells arise from pre-existing cells. Cell Size. atoms --> DNA --> virus --> bacteria (Prokaryotes) -->mitochondria--> Eukaryotic cells . Cells must remain small in size due to the ratio of surface area and volume As the cell increases in size, its surface area becomes too small to support its internal structures

1. How do the # of salt inside/outside cell compare 1 -3? 2. Match the terms: isotonic, hypertonic, hypotonic to the solutions that cells 1 -3 are soaked in: 3. Match the solution type the cells 1 -3 are soaked in: salt-water, mild saline, pure water: 4. What is the net direction of osmosis in 1 -3? 5 AP Biology: Unit - 3 - Cell Structure and Function Question 1: This organelle acts like a gatekeeper, allowing some materials to pass through it, but not others. A.Cytoplasm B.Cell Membrane C.Mitochondria D.Vacuole Question 2: What structure is in plant cells but not animal cells? A.Cell Membrane B.Mitochondria C.Cell Wall D.Vacuole Question 3 Cell Structure and Function Cell Structure and Function UNIT2 continued on next page 50 | Course and Exam DescriptionCourse Framework V.1 AP Biology 00762-113-CED-Biology_Unit 2.indd 50 2/28/19 7:18 P

Test 2 SA

View AP-Biology_-Unit---3-Cell-Structure-and-Function.pdf from MATH 3525 at Community College of City University. AP Biology: Unit - 3 - Cell Structure and Function Question 1: This organell cells come only from preexisting cells, is a basic theory of biology. The cell theory states the following: All organisms are composed of one or more cells. Cells are the basic living unit of structure and function in organisms. All cells come only from other cells. 46 Part I cell biology hree types of microscopes are most commonly used to Cell Structure and Function BIOLOGY 85 Notes MODULE - 1 Diversity and Evolution (a) Structure of Life Outermost non-living layer present in all plant cells. Secreted by the cell itself. In most plants, it is chiefly made up of cellulose but may also contain othe

AP Bio Unit 2: Cell Structure and Function Cheat Sheet by

Introduction to the cell biology About 200 different types of specialized cells carry out a multitude of functions that help each system contribute to the homeostasis of the entire body. At the same time, all cells share key structures and functions that support their intense activity AP Biology Summer Assignment and Survival Guide 2020-2021 In addition to tests, free response questions, labs and unit quizzes, you also will have reading quizzes based off the chapters you Much of what is known about the structure and function of cell organelle

Membrane Processes Practice Quiz/AP Biology of water diffused from the protozoans (5.) golgi bodies in the test organisms lost their function . 8. In pond water, protozoans pump out excess water by means of their (1.) pellicle Which substance is important to the structure of the cell membrane because it helps the cell membrane keep its. Biology STAAR EOC Review (Adapted from Alief ISD Review) Reporting Category 1: Cell Structure and Function STAAR -11 Questions STAAR M-9 Questions 4 Readiness Stds 5 Supporting Stds Biology is the study of life and living organisms. An organism is a complete, individual, living thing Cell Membranes, Transport and Communication Photosynthesis is addressed in the topic outline of the College Board AP Biology Course Description Guide as described below. AP Biology Exam Connections Membranes, transport, and communication are tested every year on the multiple choice structure follows function. Membrane fluidity i

Assessments - Ms. Emery's AP Biolog

Unit 4 - Cells, Membranes, Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration. Understand the process of how scientists discovered that cells were the basic unit of life. (The development of the cell theory) Understand how experiments with artificial membranes have added to our understanding of the structure and function of the plasma membrane AP BIOLOGY CHAPTERS 1 WORKSHEET MULTIPLE CHOICE. 18 pts. b. cell, community, population, organ system, molecule, organelle Explain why it is important to understand the correlation between structure and function in biology. Use an example in your explanation. 22

Cell and Molecular Biology Test Practice Book This practice book contains . one actual, full-length . GRE ® Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular Biology Test test-taking strategies. Become familiar with. . test structure and content . test instructions and answering procedures. Compare your practice test results with the performance of those wh Holt McDougal Biology 3 Cell Structure and Function VOCABULARY PRACTICE, CONTINUED C. Vector Vocabulary Define the words in the boxes. On the lines across each arrow, write a phrase that describes how the words in the boxes are related to each other. 3. 5. 7. HYPERTONIC 10. HYPOTONIC 9. ISOTONIC 8.. Advanced Placement & UConn Biology: UConn Plant Database. Connecticut Wildflowers Index. The Biology Coach. Chapter 5 The Structure & Function of Macromolecules. Chapter 6 A Tour of the Cell Chapter 7 Membrane Structure & Function. Introduction to the Biology Themes PowerPoint Cells are the building blocks for the body and they are made of the cell membrane, nucleus, and cytoplasm. The cells in the human body are tasked with assisting in functions such as metabolism, transportation, and secretion of substances. Test your understanding on the Biology II cell structure and functions by taking up the quiz below. All the best and keep revising AP Biology Cummings Unit 5 Cell Structure and Function Test (Chapters 4, 5, 9) STUDY. PLAY. prokaryotic cells. They are either bacteria or archaea. Prokaryotes are cells which do not have a cell nucleus. nucleoid region. within the cell of a prokaryote that contains all or most of the genetic material

AP Biology Unit 2: The Cell and Cell Membrane Cheat Sheet

  1. a study aid for quizzes and tests. Biology Prentice Hall All-in-One Study Guide Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Biology, is designed to help you acquire the skills that will allow you to study Chapter 7 Cell Structure and Function
  2. File Type PDF Ap Bio Membrane Structure And Function Pogil Intlekore Understanding by Design AP Biology Study Guide AP Biology Study Guide Advanced Placement Test in Biology The Biophysics of Cell Membranes This volume focuses on the modulation of biological membranes by specific biophysical properties. The readers are introduced t
  3. TEST Review - Cell Parts/Function/Transport - Ch 7 and Ch 8.1 Cells and Their Organelles Packet 359k: v. 1 : Sep 6, 2011, 7:46 PM: Unknown user: Ċ: Cell Structure Vocabulary - Gizmo.pdf View Download: Vocabulary - Cell Structure Gizmo.
  4. AP BIOLOGY Chapter powerpoints chapter 4 organelles tour of the cell Lopez Chapter 4 organelles tour of the cell.ppt 12.25 MB (Last Modified on August 29, 2018
  5. This reference guide helps you develop quantitative skills, such as using measurements, gathering and evaluating data, using quantitative evidence to support claims, and connecting empirical information to scientific theory, throughout the course. resource. AP Biology Course and Exam Description. This is the core document for the course

Most AP Biology classes focus on cell biology first, teaching structures and functions, cell division, cellular respiration, and the central dogma. The central dogma deviates into some molecular biological concepts, as students must become familiar with proteins and nucleic acid sequences associated with DNA replication, transcription, and. Cell Organelles Quiz - AP Biology. This quiz accompanies pages 4, 5, 6 in the homework assignment Biology Online Practice Test- Cell Structure and Function. As you know cell is basic structural and functional unit of life. All organisms from bacteria to blue whale are made of cells. This quiz is designed for assessing your knowledge about cell structure and function . Biology Online Practice Test- Cell Structure and Function.

AP Biology Practice Test: Unit 2 — Cell Structure & Functio

AP Exam Review. AP Biology Exam Review Schedule 2019-2020. Unit 1 Chemistry of Life Review Packet. Unit 2 Cell Structure and Function Review Packet. Unit 3 Cellular Energetics Review Packet. Unit 4 Cell Communication and the Cell Cycle Review Packet Complete AP Bio Exam Review. All Subject Math Review. AP Biology Score Calculato 00organelles2008.pdf: Worksheets that you received in class, but can download again if you need. Included in the worksheets is an illustration of an animal and a plant cell that you can fill out with the Baby Bio PPT listed below. Fill out the blank chart while you watch the AP PPTs and then add from textbook reading AP Biology Cell Structure and Function. Cell vocabulary. STUDY. PLAY. Light Microscope (LM) a microscope where visible light is passed through the specimen and then through glass lenses. Organelles. membrane-enclosed compartments (subcellular structures) Electron Microscope (EM AP Board Class 9 Biology Chapter 1 Cell Its Structure And Functions. Students by the time they reach Class 9 are already familiar with the topic of cells, its discovery, shapes and sizes, unicellular and multicellular organisms. However, in Andhra Board Class 9 Biology Chapter 1, students will recall the terms related to cells as well as study. The cell theory states that (1) all living things are made up of cells, (2) cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, and (3) new cells are produced from existing cells. Most microscopes use lenses to magnify the image of an object by focusing light or electrons

AP Biology Help » Cellular Biology » Cell Structures » Understand functions of organelles in the cell Example Question #1 : Understand Functions Of Organelles In The Cell Skin can be stretched and pulled with great force without breaking or tearing Chapter 5 The Structure and Function of Macromolecules Lecture Outline Overview: The Molecules of Life · Within cells, small organic molecules are joined together to form larger molecules. · These large macromolecules may consist of thousands of covalently bonded atoms and weigh more than 100,000 daltons. · The four major classes of macromolecules are carbohydrates, Continue reading. Summarize cell theory. A cell is the smallest unit of a living thing. Whether comprised of one cell (like bacteria) or many cells (like a human), we call it an organism. Thus, cells are the basic building blocks of all organisms. Several cells of one kind that interconnect with each other and perform a shared function form tissues Course Overview Acellus Honors Biology provides an in-depth introduction to biology, the study of life. A major focus of this course is the cell - its structure and function, cell transport and cellular energy, and how cells divide. Students will explore genetics and learn about DNA. Units on ecology and evolution are also included. Additional lessons have been included in this course to. Campbell Biology Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Chapter Exam Instructions. Choose your answers to the questions and click 'Next' to see the next set of questions

Use the diagram of the U-tube in the figure below to answer the following questions. The solutions in the two arms of this U-tube are separated by a membrane that is permeable to water and glucose but not to sucrose. Side A is half filled with a solution of 2 M sucrose and 1 M glucose. Side B is half filled with 1 M sucrose and 2 M glucose so when you go swimming or showering have you ever wondered why don't your cells in your body fill up with water or why don't the substances in your cells leak into the pool well the reason is because we actually have a very important structure that prevents this from happening this is what we call the cell membrane the cell membrane is what's on the outside of a cells so if we have a very. Connection for AP ® Courses. All cells, from simple bacteria to complex eukaryotes, possess a cytoskeleton composed of different types of protein elements, including microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules. The cytoskeleton serves a variety of purposes: provides rigidity and shape to the cell, facilitates cellular movement. Plants have specialized structures to deal with water and nutrients. These include stomata controlled by guard cells, a loosely packed spongy layer, the palisade layer, xylem, and phloem. Plants produce energy through photosynthesis and lose water via transpiration. As water evaporates from the leaves, it pulls water up through channels in the. SB1a Test: Cell Structure and Function Study Guide 1) Convert sugar into energy - mitochondria 2) Make proteins for just the cell they are located within - ribosomes 3) Make cell parts more efficient by increasing the available space for work to take place within a cell -folded membranes 4) Package and distribute proteins - golgi 5) Contains digestive enzymes to help break down cell wastes.

Cell Biology Test - 70 possible points Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells After you add a chemical to cells growing in a test tube, proteins accumulate in the cell's rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Which cell structures cause the outer surface of endoplasmic reticulum to appear rough? a) ribosomes b) proteins. Name _____ AP Biology 2 of 6 Developed by Kim B. Foglia • www.ExploreBiology.com • ©2010 5. If plant cells are immersed in distilled water, the resulting movement of water into the cells is called (1990:34) A. conduction B. active transport C. transpiration D. osmosis E. facilitated diffusion 6 6 ™ Activities for AP* Biology POGIL 16. Examine the tertiary structure in Model 3 and note the interactions that hold this level of struc-ture in place. a. Four types of bonds or interactions are shown. Label them with the following terms. Disulfide bridge Hydrogen bond Hydrophobic interactions Ionic bond b

AP Biology Cells Test Review Cell Structure Quiz - Quiziz

AP BIOLOGY EXAM ESSAY (FREE RESPONSE) QUESTIONS Identify THREE macromolecules that are components of the plasma membrane in a eukaryotic cell and discuss the structure and function of each. b. Explain how membranes participate in THREE of the following biological processes . Design a controlled experiment to test the hypothesis that an. Chapter 4: Membrane Structure and Function Cell Membrane Proteins: 1) Transport Proteins: • Regulate movement of hydrophilic molecules through membrane A) Channel Proteins (e.g. Na+ channels) B) Carrier Proteins (e.g. glucose transporter) 2) Receptor Proteins www.njctl.org PSI AP Biology Midterm Review 5. When calculating water potential of cells in solution, why do animal cells always have a pressure potential of zero. a. Animal cells do not have cell walls. b. The plasma membrane of animal cells is able to stretch indefinitely. c. The plasma membrane of animal cells resists pressure. d 1 An Overview of Cell Structure and Function 1 Cell's Need for Immense Amounts of Information 2 Rudiments of Prokaryotic Cell Structure 2 Rudiments of Eukaryotic Cell Structure 5 Packing DNA into Cells 7 Moving Molecules into or out of Cells 8 Diffusion within the Small Volume of a Cell 13 Exponentially Growing Populations 1 1. Name one cell function that takes place in organelles. Identify the Parts Highlight each cell structure as you read about it. Underline the function of each part.-!).)DEA The eukaryotic cell contains organelles. What You'll Learn differences in the structures of plant and animal cells 069-082_Bio_SRE_C07_896099.indd 75 PDF Pass 3/4/10 10.

Cell structure and function AP®︎/College Biology

AP Biology Lecture Notes. In class, we will be covering about one chapter each day. Yes, that is fast! I will be using Powerpoint to deliver my lectures. I would recommend that you download and print out the lectures notes before each class and use them to follow along. The lecture notes are also helpful to use to review for tests AP Biology Answer Key for Unit 7 Part 1 Evolution (Natural Selection and HW) 1. p is the frequency of the dominant allele, q is the frequency of the recessive allele, p2 is the % of population that is homozygous dominant, q2 is the % of population that is homozygous recessive, 2pq is the % of population that is heterozygous. 2. 47% BIOLOGY 12 - CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION: Chapter Notes THE CELL THEORY • although different living things may be as unlike as a violet and an octopus, they are all built in essentially the same way. The most basic similarity is that all living things are composed of one or more cells. This is known as the Cell Theory 1 Biology 3 Ch 3 Cell Structure and Function Dr. Terence Lee Cells Robert Hooke, a British scientist, mid-1600s Cell Theory • Cell = The smallest structural unit of an organism that is capable of independent functionin

Lab 4, Biology 3 Updated 11/02/2013 . Lab #4: Microscopy & Structure and Function of Cells . OVERVIEW. The microscope is one of the most important and frequently used tools in the biological sciences. It allows the user to peer into the world of the cell, as well as discover the fascinating world of microscopic organisms Spring 2004 Final Exam Practice 3 Question 1, continued ____ A DNA molecule that is distinct from the chromosome; this molecule can be used to move foreign DNA in or out of a cell ____ The DNA from a eukaryote formed by the enzyme reverse transcriptase; this DNA lacks introns ____ An organism with 2 identical alleles for the same gene ____ A membrane protein involved in signal transduction. Honors Bio. Honors Biology Class Guidelines. Mr. Lyons Room 645. Steve.lyons@stjohns.k12.fl.us. 2020 Online Classroom Special Edition. Honors, Pre-IB Online Week 1, Ecology 1. Honors Biology is a course for motivated, college-bound 9th graders that involves group learning, audio-visual aids such as animations and DVD's, on-line lessons.

Introduction to Proteins Structure, Function, and MotionThe Structure of the Plasma MembraneBiologyChapter 7 Cell Structure And Function Worksheet Answers

Biology Pacing Guide 2017-2018 9/21 2 - Cell Transport 19 F 9/22 Goal 4 1 - Cell Transport 19 M 9/25 1.1.2 Structure & Function of Cells 1 - ATP/ADP 2 - Cell Processes Using ATP 20 T 9/26 1.1.2, 1.1.3 1 - Photosynthesis 21 W 9/27 1.1.3 1 - Cellular Respiration 2 - Fermentation 22 T 8. Test items will not require the creation of a chart, graph, or table. 9. Biology 1 EOC Assessment items should not require use of a calculator. 10. Test items may require the student to apply knowledge of the science concepts described in the prior knowledge benchmarks from lower grades; however, that knowledge should NOT be assessed in. 2. The relationship of structure to function is one of the major themes in biology. For three of the following structure/function pairs, describe the structure and then explain how the function is related to the structure. (a) Enzyme structure/catalysis (b) mRNA structure/protein synthesis (c) Cell membrane structure/signal transductio AP Biology Reading Guide Julia Keller 12d Fred and Theresa Holtzclaw Chapter 7: Membrane Structure and Function 1. What four main classes do the large molecules of all living things fall into? Unlike lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids are macromolecular chain-like molecules called polymers. 2 Unit 4 Part 1 Notes - Cell Types and Structure. Unit 4 Part 1 Notes Chart (for organelle annotations) Unit 4 Part 1 Notes Chart ANSWER KEY. Unit 4 Part 2 Notes - Cell Membrane and Transport. Types of Cell Transport Chart (to complete while annotating) Unit 4 Part 2 In-Class Powerpoint. Unit 4 Part 3 Notes - Water Potential and SA:V